Sunday, January 12, 2020

Managing Across Culture

{draw:rect} {draw:rect} 000579613; 000573398; 000573202; 000583118;000527971 {draw:frame} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} Managing Across Cultures- Group Report on Case Study Analysis of Alcatel-Lucent BY TEAM: Meenak*shi Mukherjee* 000579613 Carlos Andres Serna 000583118 Quasirat Hasnat 000573202 Sangeet Premkumar 000573398 Imran Shahzad 000527971 Executive Summary This paper examines a case study sprouting mergers of two firms Alcatel and Lucent technologies. This paper provides an insight into the French and American cultures taking into consideration the parent company cultural imbroglio. Alcatel, an American company, was previously owned by the technological giant, the AT&T group. However in the year 1996, the company parted ways from the group of AT &T and merged with the French company, Alcatel. Alcatel, headquartered in France, provides hardware-software services to the telecommunications sector involving service providers and enterprises. On the 1st December, 2006, Alcatel- Lucent merged to explore greater productivity by utilizing jointly owned resources, products and services. Cross-cultural barriers hindered Alcatel-Lucent’s strategic advantageover its competitors. In this paper, the Alcatel- Lucent merger will be critically analysed with help reference frameworks and cultural tools such as Hofstede’s dimensions, Trompenaar’s theories on culture and related articles from newspapers. In the recent years, companies have been adopting the strategy to expand their markets globally with different strategies such as mergers and acquisitions, strategic alliances, licensing etc. However, companies trying to achieve synergetic benefits often fail in their process of expansion due to the cultural problems revolving between the host and home countries. Introduction Alcatel-Lucent, headquartered in Paris, France, is the Telecom giant with over 77,000 employees in its payroll a with annual revenue generated as reported in the financial report standing at a staggering 16. 98 billion Euros. The merger of parent companies Alcatel and Lucent was anticipated to be the ‘shining star’ of mergers and was aptly phrased as a merger of equals (Sutherland, 2006). This paper discusses the importance of cultural differences and indicates the problems that can be create when different cultural interaction occurs between different strata’s of organizations. Short Brief about different cultures Culture can be considered to be a vast word having no unified idea that can summarize the true essence of it. Some scholars and researchers define Culture as a part of our environmental conditioning, usually distributed among members of similar nations, regions and areas (_Sorensen_, 1984). This case study is used to communicate the study of cross culture and its related problems. In regards to job environment, the French Culture believes in providing security for the members of the society. The Culture is competitive yet assertive but however is risk averse and consumes too much time to take decisions to deal with a situation. On the contrary, the American Culture is easy going and flexible. Americans believe in quick decision making with a â€Å"win-lose† approach and as a result accept uncertainties in a positive manner. In a recent article, Holstein (2007) stated, that the two parent companies addressed the issue of crisis taking measures differently. In times of crisis, the Americans believe in reducing costs through scaling down job opportunities whereas the French have a supportive approach towards their employees with the government acting as the back bone to resolve such issues making the process of decision slow but unaffected by the crisis piling on the company with additional operational costs. The inclination of the American Culture is towards achieving short term goals such as profit making, however, the French culture denotes a negative aspect of doing business with haste. The French decision making processes are long and tend to measure each step taking important aspects into consideration. Literature review The Dutch anthropologist, Trompenaars , conducted a research over 10 years and eventually publishing his work in 1994. Expatriates in an organisation can benefit from his dimensions by having knowledge on the managing tasks in different cultures (Trompeenars et. al. , 1997). Universalism Vs Particularism: According to Trompenaars , Universalism and Particularism are terms used to denote a culture which is governed by rules and relationships. In the words of French (2007), rules are flexible in particularistic societies and relationships are given more importance than rules. Trompenaar’s classifies of USA as aUniversalistic society bound by rules. Hence, Lucent as a company believes in developing rules, codes and standards that can be applicable to everyone in every situation without any modification. In USA, negotiation takes place in written agreements, shows that a formal procedure is to be followed to do business. However in a particularistic culture, the type of relationship determines the business. Whereas the French culture is average in Universalism indicating Alcatel, the French company is neither too particularistic nor too universalistic and rationally develop inter personal relationship and trust bearing in mind the expected standards (Gesteland, 2005). Affective/ Emotional Vs Neutral: Affective and Neutral are terms used to represent emotions with in a culture. In affective cultures individuals tend to show their emotions explicitly in public like the American culture. However Neutral cultures believe in implicit behaviour towards their emotions. According to French (2007), different cultures exhibit different behaviours when it comes to emotions. American people tend to deliver their disgust spot-on using verbal communication where as the French do so with sign language such as frowning and smirks. The US and French cultures are both alignedvery close to each other in terms of how emotional or neutral they are. Both of them are moderately average, which means people working in Lucent as well as Alcatel neither express their feelings too enthusiastically nor do they try to hide their feelings (Gesteland, 2005). Specificity Vs Diffuseness: According to Hampden (1998), Specificity is a term used to represent cultures where difference between work life and personalised life are applicable. In diffused cultures, the society is non- segregated as work and personalised life are closely interlinked. According to Guirdham (1999), the French are diffused in their cultural believes hence personal and professional life is considered to be a part of the culture whereas the Americans believe in keeping the two separate. Achievement Vs Ascription: Trompenaar describes cultures which believe in achieving status through performance with a generic belief that status can be gained and lost if performances are not measured accordingly. Ascribed status is where people believe that status is gained through inherent right and not according to what they perform in everyday life(French,2007). Achievement oriented societies formed by individuals who believe in achieving goals independently. For example the reigning President of the United States of America, Barrack Obama is an individual who became the president with his qualities and perseverance. In Ascribed societies, people believe in the status and the background of individuals. This juxtaposes the idea that in France one can participate in politics only if their family has been inclined politically in the past. The American culture is achievement oriented thus at Lucent, social status or position of an employee is derived from his/her achievements. The employees in Alcatel could grow only if their business links with the superiors are concrete (Guirdham, 1999). Sequential Time vs. Synchronisation: The word, sequence, is used to describe time where events follow one another whereas in synchronised time, events are arranged at a parallel basis. Multi-tasking is the main feature of synchronisation. Lucent being a North American company follows monochromic time that is tangible and divisible. They view time as a narrow spectrum of distinct, consecutive segments. Hence they perform only one activity at a time with greater focus, keeping a strict schedule of appointments and showing a strong resistance from deviating their plans (Gesteland, 2005). Whereas Alcatel being a Mediterranean country follows Polychromic time, for them time is indivisible and flexible. Time is viewed as a norm and people perform multiple activities simultaneously which makes them distracted very easily. For them appointments are approximate and can be changed at any point of time, schedules are not as important as relationships are. Future Vs Past Orientation: Lucent focuses more on the present and the immediate future than what has happened in the past. They concentrate on achieving result within a short span of time. In Alcatel, the present and future are valued by looking at events that occurred previously. Any given situation is compared to the previous happenings. Time orientation does matter a lot when companies operate in different cultures. It creates chaos specially in taking long term decisions. High Vs Low context cultures: Lucent (USA)- as a company possesses the attributes of a low context culture where it relies on information explicitly provided, detailed communication and even higher detailed instruction at workplace. However at Alcatel (France), employees practice moderate levels of cultural context interms of communication, information and even instruction at workplace. Alcatel being a French company practices very high power distance, which means a wide gap exists between leaders, subordinates and management decisions are made at the top level only without the consent of fellow employees. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Dutch Anthropologist, Geert Hofstede defines culture as â€Å"The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another† (Hofstede, 2001). Using his survey at the IBM involving employees from world over, he formulated the cultural dimensional framework. High Vs Low Power Distance: Power distance is related to a society which is divided into classes and ranks. In USA, ranks are least important to individuals as they believe in Equality. Organisational ranks often make employees feel uncomfortable and are not practiced widely. In France such distinction between classes and ranks are acceptable. Though high organisational ranked employees believe in respecting employees of lower ranks but make sure that the distinction is clear. In such countries it is wise for a subordinate to use terms such as ‘Sir’ or ‘Madam’. Whereas, at Lucent- a US based company, power distance is relatively low. The gap between superior and subordinate is minimal likewise salary and decisions are made consulting with everyone, though organizational hierarchy exists but for convenience. High Vs Low Uncertainty Avoidance: The term Uncertainty denotes societies that are risk averse and risk takers. In US, the culture believes in taking risks and with France, risk taking is not a wise decision and is often followed with monotonous long-term decision making. The French are known for high uncertainty avoidance. Hence at Alcatel people prefer not to take risks unnecessarily, they usually are loyal to their employers and have long work records. The organization is structured with explicit rules and regulations with the employee (French, 2007). Therefore, Lucent as an organization is not well structured and people are eager to take risk, thus being flexible that makes them not loyal enough and are clear indicators of short term employees. As France is extremely cautious about uncertainty decisions, thus employees at Alcatel are extremely concerned about job losses. In a recent article Sutherland (2006) stated that: â€Å"About 10 percent, or 8,800 employees, will be laid-off. Lucent could not answer which percentage of the job losses will be borne by the U. S. Company, but French laws tightly control when employers can fire workers† (Cited in, Sutherland, 2006). Individualism Vs Collectivism: In Individualistic societies, individuals tend to look after their family and themselves. Organisational goals are based on individualistic performance and not on the group effort. Team works are performed with individual rewarding system. Collectivist countries believe that the essence of good performance is based on team work. Individuals must sacrifice their personal interest for the benefit of the team. Rewards and bonuses are according to the team’s performance on activities. The French and American individualistic characteristics are common, causing a clash of cultures while working in conglomerate companies such as Alcatel-lucent. Individualism evolved when the two companies merged because the people started thinking of their own self interests instead of considering the company on the whole. This leads to chaotic asynchronous processes that are disruptive for productivity (French, 2007). Masculinity Vs Femininity: Masculinity and femininity are characterized by behaviours such as assertiveness, competitiveness, caring and loving. Masculinity is a composition of tough values whereas Femininity shows tender traits. Both the nations are masculine in nature but the roles of women in the two societies are very different. In USA, Women can reach the top layers of the organisation whereas in the France it is the other way round and men are given more precedence as the society male dominant. In an article Holstein (2007) stated that: â€Å"One is that there is confusion about who’s in charge. Russo became CEO of the combined entity and Tchuruk became chairman. In American cultural terms, that means Russo runs the company. After all, she’s the CEO. But in a European context, and particularly a French setting, the chairman is the boss. Confusion at the top is deadly† (Cited by, Holstein, 2007). Masculinity is relatively high in Alcatel compared to Lucent. At Alcatel, people believe in competition, performance and male dominance. Whereas at Lucent ,people seek equal opportunity, better quality of work, solidarity over other factors including competitive behaviour. Patricia Russo, a successful business entrepreneur from the USA is an example of a Masculine dominant society where women scale the height of opportunities. According to Verwaayen (2008), decisions making in Alcatel-Lucent remains a crucial factor as the two companies have different reporting standards. In Alcatel the Chairman is the head who takes the final decisions relating to a company and in Lucent the CEO is the person who delegates decisions. The two different distinct approaches have clearly confused the role of employees in both the companies. Verwaayen (2008) also stated that in mergers, long distances usually creates trauma as processes cannot be co-ordinated hence provides freehand edge to competitors. According Gubbins (2007), it is important for the government to have a top- bottom flat structured system so as to make the operations of the company smooth and efficient to survive the competitive environment. Cultural clashes were so evident that Patricia Russo, the chief executive decided to leave the company and stakeholders expected changes after his reign. This can be analysed from the newsfeed of Alcatel-Lucent (2009) stating that: â€Å"We hope that a new CEO will be able to bridge the cultural divide between the Americans and the French and get all sides pulling together† (Cited in, Windsor, 2008). Analysis of Opportunities, *Challenges,* Considerations Opportunities Alcatel-Lucent partners a project phrased as the â€Å"Cercle Passeport Telecoms†,in France, which is a business program for corporate mentoring of multicultural students from humble backgrounds in their pursuit for higher academic opportunities (Alcatel-Lucent,2008). As a part of the recruitment opportunities, Alcatel Lucent revamped its business training programs into sessions that integrated technical training with hands-on experience on security products and data transmission . Further emphasis on sales methodologies, reaching out to partners to engage with the end-users and to carve out solutions to address their needs. In order to convert innovative ideas into reality products or services, Alcatel-Lucent launched the Entrepreneurial Boot Camp housed in Belgium in the spring of 2006. Aimed at a constructive build of a global knowledge base where creativity blossoms, a business foundation like the Boot Camp is a grooming factory for all the budding business developers of the next generation. Alcatel-Lucent’s strategic security partnership with renowned financial sector reseller Abraxas Partners paves wave for new job opportunities showering prosperity in the near future (Alcatel-Lucent, 2008). Considerations The primary objective of a merger is the integration of skills, resources, and business networks and their harmonic implementation. Taking into account Cultural differences, mergers are drafted, and contingency plans are prepared in order to tackle such differences. When cultural differences arise at higher level of the organizational hierarchy, the execution of these pre planned contingencies become haphazard(Turner & Trompenaars, 2000). The analysis of this uber-merger case study has given us a clear insight in to the detrimental situations aroused by unsuccessful execution of mergers. The cultural differences seem irrelevant considering the fallacies involved with it are not redundant while assessing shifts in fiscal trends. The persistent pressure enforced a moral obligation, convincing the American chief executive, Patricia Russo and the French Chairman, Serge Tchuruk to step down. (Ruitenberg,2008). The ignorance of demographic and geographic interests might have had a negative impact on the merger. Previous acquisitions and mergers may have misunderstood the merger as a change in organizational goals. According to Jolly (2008) ,Alcatel-Lucent’s current vision can be quoted as â€Å"CSR is about being a value driven company, where values are not words on pieces of paper but things we do automatically . It’s about being a company that is inclusive and has respect for the individuals, respect for differences and respect for cultures â€Å". Challenges Mergers and Acquisitions have a tendency to confront various issues and involve constant reframing of policies. Differences can be resolved at the nascent stages of the Merger or Acquisition only. Alcatel-Lucent faces a challenge in restoring their longstanding relation with their previous collaborators like Bell Labs, Packet Engines and Xylan who might have experienced difficulties while the management underwent changes, so that they may continue providing and developing their services. They also face the challenge of retaining existing customers especially those who might have endured inept services while the organization resolved its differences. The merger of the parent companies has taken a toll of time and the company has experienced positive development in turnovers, cultural integration thus reoccupying the held market share and brand goodwill. Internal Organization Alcatel-Lucent’s design and consultancy service convolutes the vital processes necessary to ensure an integration of cost-effective, flexible network infrastructure. Business Consulting, Operations Consulting, Applications Consulting, Security Consulting, Network Consulting & Design, Network & Service Optimization are Business units and processes that constitute this esteemed organization (Alcatel-Lucent,2008). Conclusion and Recommendation Complications usually occur when two companies from two different countries merge to benefit synergetic effects. In terms of Alcatel- lucent, the two parent companies follow an individualistic approach which motivates employees to work towards individualistic goals and often the objective of the company is not taken into mere consideration. The essence of good successful business is to adopt a collectivistic approach giving the goal and the mission of the company at the top priority. Team work will motivate employees of Alcatel- Lucent to take decision jointly (Alcatel-Lucent, 2008). To bridge the gap between America and the France, it is important to reduce the distance by sending employees of each company onto expatriate missions. To understand a culture, it is important to stand in the threshold of the other. Managers in expatriate missions will gain better understanding of the French and the American cultures thus adjusting to the new inter-cross culture. Leadership should be vested in hands of one and not many, therefore confusion at the top should be avoided by integrating processes with clear objectives. Employees should be made to report to only one superior. It is important for the company, Alcatel- Lucent, to use new technologies such as video conferencing to reduce communication barriers between the employees of the two countries. In this time of financial crisis, it is important to cut costs to sustain in the global business market. Top heavy structures in the company with higher pay packs to the employees could create operational loss. In the reduction of financial position, the competitors would benefit by reaping advantage of the situation and overlapping it by way of acquisition. As the French are more protective about the job loss scenario, the company should take effective measures such as putting employee rolls stagnant thereby reducing its financial cost. References French, R. (2007),â€Å"Cross Cultural management in work organizations,† Kerry Press LTD, London. Hofstede, G (2001) â€Å"Cultures and organizations: software of mind† McGraw Hill, New York. Turner,C. H. & Trompenaars,F. 2000) â€Å"Building Cross cultural Competence,† John Wiley &Sons Inc, USA. Alcatel-Lucent, (2008) â€Å"Alcatel-Lucent launches new channel recruitment drive in UK and Ireland and announces security partnership with Abraxas† [Online] Available at: http://www. subtelforum. com/articles/? p=190 (Accessed on 2nd Dec. 2009). Alcatel-Lucent, (2009) â€Å"Alcatel-Lucent announces Chairman Serge Tchuruk a nd CEO Pat Russo to step down† [Online] Available at: http://www. alcatellucent. com/wps/portal/! ut/p/kcxml/04_Sj9SPykssy0xPLMnMz0vM0Y_QjzKLd4x3tXDUL8h2VAQAURh_Yw!!? LMSG_CABINET=Docs_and_Resource_Ctr&LMSG_CONTENT_FILE=News_Releases_2008/News_Article_001159. xml (Accessed on 2nd December 2009). Fons,T. , Turner,H. , Charles, (1997), â€Å" Riding the waves of culture†, Gardners [Online] Available at: http://www. businessmate. org/Article. php? ArtikelId=5 (Accessed on 10th Nov. 2009). Gubbins,E. (2007), â€Å" UBS: Alcatel faces mobility decline, culture clash† telephony online: Penton media online press [Online] Available at : http://telephonyonline. com/wireless/news/alcatel_mobility_revenue_121907/ (Accessed on :23rd Nov 2009). Hall,E. T. and Hall,M. T. (1990), â€Å"Understanding Cultural Differences, Germans French and Americans† , USA, pg 129;130. Holstein,W. J. (2007), â€Å"Lucent-Alcatel: Why Cross-Cultural Mergers Are So Tough†New York Times [Online] available at: http:// www. nytimes. com/2007/11/01/business/worldbusiness (Accessed on 10th nov. 2009). Jolly,D. (2008), â€Å"Culture clash hits home at Alcatel-Lucent† New York Times [Online] available at: http://www. nytimes. com/2008/07/29/business/worldbusiness/29iht-alcatel. 4. 14867263. html? pagewanted=1 ( Accessed on 1st December 2009). Ruitenberg,R. 2008),† Alcatel-Lucent's Russo, Tchuruk to Quit; Loss Widens† Bloomberg[Online] Available at: http://www. bloomberg. com/apps/news? pid=20601085=a6fn02kzojwE=europe (Accessed on, 20th November 2009). Sorensen,G. (1984) â€Å"How much Poison is Another Man's Meat? † Notes on the Logic of World Systems Analysis, page 29. Sorensen,O. J. (1984) â€Å" Marketing Systems a nd Economic Development. An Institutional-Structural Approach† page 41. Sutherland,E. (2006), â€Å"Lucent Brushes Up on French With Alcatel Merger† Internetnews [Online] Available at: http://www. internetnews. com/bus-news/article. hp/3596246 (accessed on 23rd Nov 2009). Verwaayen ,B. (2008), â€Å"Alcatel-Lucent: New CEO, Same Three Problems† The Wall street journal. Windsor. R(2008), â€Å"Alcatel-Lucent confronts its cross-cultural challenges† BBC News[Online] available at: http://leaderswedeserve. wordpress. com/2008/07/31/alcatel-lucent-confronts-its -cross-cultural-challenges (Accessed on 5th Nov. 2009). Managing across Cultures, INDU 1033 – Team Reflection – Questions to guide the Team Presentation and Written Report Draw on your experiences: how would you qualify the teamwork in terms of {text:list-item} Keeping in mind the scarcity of information available in journals and online web content a strategic plan was devised to search online material using key trigger words that would facilitate in text referencing. The presentation time being short was a challenge for me in my role( Meenakshi Mukherjee) as group leader to define specific roles to my team mates to quantify the case study of Alcatel –Lucent keeping in mind the cultural heritage both companies’ native countries share. A well defined work with ample support from team members in way of skills and research makes me happy and feel good as a budding manager graduating from this esteemed university. {text:list-item} I would like to reflect on the fact that our team being truly multicultural, representing various nations of the world knit as family segregating this task into sections of expertise . Taking the reference frame work set forth by the respected lecturer and tutors, each subtopic in the case study was carefully classified and analysed. Disputes about the content were usually friendly group discussions in a professional manner. How much could difficulties be related to national variations in approaches to group work ? Multicultural teams like ours have different rational thinking capabilities . Innovative ideas streamlined. But the pipeline for these ideas was the standards we must set . Work can be left to interpretation. A consensus of the group eradicated doubt and hesitant notions. What elements of the process would you do differently next time. NB various approaches may exist among the different members of the team The data collection was done in large qualities from various limited resources. The case of Alcatel Lucent is primarily neglected in the business world. Careful selection of the company of reference could have been more articulate and the constrains of time and word limited was a real burden . Optimum utilization of resources can be improvide in future. The following members of the team declare to have fulfilled a

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Interesting Research Paper Topics

Research Paper Topics for Students Many students are required to find new and unique research paper topics for class papers. This process can be difficult due to how many research papers have been written over the years, and while you may never find a unique topic, getting the right twist on a good research paper topic can make a difference in your grade. Research paper topics can be complex or simple, but interesting research paper topics are often those with the most robust sources of information. Professionals can put you on track to the best writing, and experience is always a great helper. When you need assistance for your research paper topics writing, we are here to help. Interesting Research Paper Topics from Professionals When you want the best writing, you need the best research paper topics, interesting research paper topics that support your course and field goals. Everyone has to write research papers, and everyone has to seek out the best sources of information to make their work a success. However, if you are seeking assistance for your research paper topics writing, you do not need just anyone to help you. You need degree-holding professionals who can help you develop interesting research paper topics. Experienced writers, from many different disciplines and degree fields, available to assist you with research paper topics writing to help you get what you want to accomplish. Research Paper Topic Writing You can get the best assistance for your research paper topics when you visit Pensters where we provide you with options and high quality writers you can review. We do not just tell you we provide you with experienced expert writers for your research paper topics, we show you. Our writers have written interesting research paper topics, blogs, and samples for you to read, examples that will demonstrate their commitment to your success in research paper topics writing. When you want the best service, you need a company dedicated to your needs a company that gives you choices and skilled writers. Our writers want you to know how important you are, and they have work to show you how well they will work for you.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Movie Theater The Film Theater - 1645 Words

Throughout history, humans have always been able to connect over one thing: entertainment. Whether it is music, theater, or art, entertainment has always been able to help people cope with their lives and make sense of the world around them. In the early 1900s, a new type of entertainment emerged, the motion picture. The first movie theater opened in 1905, in Pittsburgh and showed short films. Since then, films have been a huge part of society. However, what made films so successful, was where they were being showed. The movie theater gave a certain magical touch to the movie that encouraged everyone to come see a film for themselves. In Chicago especially, movie theaters were extravagant and ornate, and were referred to as â€Å"Movie Palaces† because they were so grand. The importance of movie theaters throughout history is a topic which exhibits all three E’s in Chicago for the 2015-2016 Chicago National History Fair. It depicts the first â€Å"E†, â€Å"Expl oration,† with how the movie theater companies explored different ways to attract customers from all backgrounds in Chicago, even through difficult situations. The second â€Å"E†, â€Å"Encounter,† is shown when the theater owners realized that seeing a movie can be an escape for many people during hard times and an inspirational experience through the exotic architecture of other cultures. The final â€Å"E†, â€Å"Exchange†, is represented through the exchange of information from the movie theaters to the people with architecture from all over theShow MoreRelatedFilm Theater : A Movie Theater1524 Words   |  7 Pagesis the main point for any Movie Theatre. The profit for a Movie Theatre is not coming only from tickets but also from all the sales of food and drinks. 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TheRead MoreHome Television vs. Theater Movies1100 Words   |  4 Pagesmany debates regarding which of these entertainment forms are the best option. This debate has focused specifically on whether it is better to be entertained by the movie industry in the comfort of ones home or in the luxury of a theater. While there are specific advantages and disadvantages to both options, comparing the two modes of movie entertainment can provide a good idea of what would suit the individual taste the best. When such comparisons are made, one might find both advantages and disadvantagesRead MoreWatching Movies: Movie Theatre vs. Home1077 Words   |  4 PagesMovie Viewing Watching movies is an excellent source of entertainment. It can be an escape mechanism, adrenaline booster, romantic evening, social platform, and/or a tension reliever. The environment in which one chooses to enjoy a film can directly impact the experience one has while watching a film. 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In a theater, one can watchRead MoreRise Of American Theaters And Consumerist Desires1594 Words   |  7 Pages Rise of American Theaters And Consumerist Desires In the early twentieth century movies signified modernity by becoming the most prevalent medium of culture in the United States in a period of time where the social makeup was shifting from a predominantly middle class to working class neighborhoods that were made up of many different communities. As a direct consequence, nickelodeons, temporary storefront theaters, and vaudeville programs all flourished in the working class districts. By the lateRead MoreSwot Cinemas Essay713 Words   |  3 Pagesmanaged by large corporations and manage as profit center to increase their incomes and retained earnings. Weaknesses The main weakness of the Studio production is the cost of bringing films into the market. The average cost of releasing a film is more than $100 million. 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Thursday, December 19, 2019

Relationship between Art and Technology in 1960s - 1670 Words

Spurred on by exhibitions, industry sponsorship and education programmes, the artists of the 1960s began to grapple with the space age. The launch of Sputnik in 1957 prompted a new interest in the world of the machine, yet the artistic approach to technology differed from the Futurist and Constructivist precedent. Technology did not hold utopian potential; rather the artists of the 1960s adopted varied approaches, ranging from sheer admiration to fearful pessimism. However, by the end of the 1960s technology became closely associated with the American war effort. The negativity that developed in response resulted in the technological work of artists such as Jean Tinguely and Robert Rauschenberg being pushed aside in favour of Conceptualism. Jean Tinguely’s Homage to New York (1960) and Robert Rauschenberg’s Soundings (1968) will be used to explore how these particular artists responded to the rising technology, and the extent to which artist and scientist collabora ted. The technological works of Tinguely can be classified as kinetic due to their incorporation of mechanical movement. For Pontus Hultà ©n the inclusion of movement implied a ‘complete rejection of the holy values of art’, the traditional characteristics of sculpture were abandoned and kineticism projected sculpture onto a different course. Tinguely, like Rauschenberg, used technology as a means to question and investigate his society. For the artist of the 1960s technology was a tool; it offered newShow MoreRelatedThe Relationship Between Art And Commerce1420 Words   |  6 PagesThe relationship between art and commerce has always been subject of hot discussion. Many people look at creativity as a vehicle for economic interest, while others view it as pure dedication for personal creative needs. The world as we live in today sees the creative industry, including visual and performing arts, sound recording, book publishing, and movie making, a highly commercialized glob al enterprise. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Importance of Brand to an FMCG Company-Free-Sample for Students

Question: Discuss about the Importance of Brand Equity in gaining Competitive advantage to an FMCG Company. Answer: Literature review: The literature review takes into account the important concepts and theories pertaining to the subject of study, brand equity. It delves into various aspects relation to brand equity like brand equity model, brand awareness and market penetration. The paper clearly discusses the role brand equity plays in ensuring the FMCG companies enjoy high profits and competitive advantages in the market. Conceptual Framework: Figure 2. Figure showing brand equity and competitive advantage relationship (Source: Author) According to Jin and Weber (2013) the model proposed by Kelly states that companies must create a positive and specific perception, feelings and opinion about their products among the consumers. The theory then mentions that strong brand equity results in a strong market picture about the goods and services which enable the companies pull a large number of buyers. Figure 1. Brand equity model (Source: Keller 2017) Huang et al. (2014) in their literary work mention that customer satisfaction created by consumption a high standard branded goods and services leads to promotion of the brands by the consumers which further makes the brand equity stronger. Sengupta, Balaji and Krishnan (2015) clashes with Huang et al. in their work and point out the brand power singly does not lead to market competitive advantage achieved by a company in the competitive FMCG sector. They state that fall through of the FMCG companies to sell high quality goods and services and generate customer satisfaction results in weak brand equity and losing of the competitive advantage. Brand awareness and market penetration: Huang and Sarigll (2014) state that brand knowledge refers to the capability of consumers relate and recall a particular branded product. Companies generate high brand awareness by promotion which permits them to achieve profound market penetration and sell products to a large number of consumers. Buil, De Chernatony and Martnez(2013) state that elements of brand equity like brand awareness, relatedness with brands and impact of perceived quality on buyers thought about products and optimise their purchase decisions. This analysis points out that market penetration and brand awareness enjoyed by branded products earns them high brand equity. Competitive advantage: Rubach and McGee (2015) states that the theory of generic competitive advantage by Michael Porter covers three strategies companies can adopt to gain competitive advantage in the competitive market. These are cost leadership strategy, differential strategy and focus strategy. Cost leadership strategy: Ibrahim(2015) states in his work that the theory of cost leadership strategy states that the FMCG producers with objective to achieve cost leadership must offer their products to a large population of customers to earn huge revenue. This massive revenue enables these firms to allocate their costs which maximise their profit margin. Malhotra (2014) states that high brand equity enables FMCG companies offer their goods and services to big consumer bases and earn big revenue which enables them to minimise the rates of their products offered. It can be inferred from the above discussion that high brand equity enables companies to obtain cost leadership in the international market. Differential Strategy: According to Davcik and Sharma(2015) companies require to achieve differentiation in their products from their rivals to earn competitive advantage. Malhotra (2014) states that high brand position assist the companies in promoting their goods and services to differentiate them from their market competitors. The analysis shows that strong brand equity permits the FMCG multinational companies to differentiate their product offerings from their rivals and obtain market competitive advantage. Focus strategy: Choudhary(2014) illustrates that niche marketing enables the FMCG firms focus on more specific requirements of the consumers and sell them products which meet those needs. This strategy of focus helps the FMCG firms to withstand the challenges presented by multinational competitor companies. An analysis regarding competitive strategies opted by the leading FMCG companies proves that they use all the three generic strategies to obtain and retain their competitive market positions. These powerful strategies arm the multinational firms to counteract threats of substitutes, new emerging firms and maintain their global market positions. Literature gap: Researchers feel a number of gaps while conducting researches which limits the span of the researches. Brand equity is a new concept but has considerable work to its credit but most of the work lacks reliability. The sources available on the official websites of the FMCG companies often do not give sufficient information about brand equity. The information provided on the other web sources lacks reliability due to access of users to edit them. The research also requires an exhaustive study of articles, journals and books. These two factors results in a gap between the expected amount of amount and actual data collected. References: Buil, I., De Chernatony, L. and Martnez, E., 2013. Examining the role of advertising and sales promotions in brand equity creation.Journal of Business Research,66(1), pp.115-122. Choudhary, S., 2014. Rooting by niche marketing.International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences,3(10), pp.84-91. Davcik, N.S. and Sharma, P., 2015. Impact of product differentiation, marketing investments and brand equity on pricing strategies: A brand level investigation.European Journal of Marketing,49(5/6), pp.760-781. Fremeth, A.R., Holburn, G.L. and Richter, B.K., 2016. Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Organizational Research: Applications of Synthetic Control Methodology in the US Automobile Industry.Organization Science,27(2), pp.462-482. Huang, C.C., Yen, S.W., Liu, C.Y. and Chang, T.P., 2014. The relationship among brand equity, customer satisfaction, and brand resonance to repurchase intention of cultural and creative industries in Taiwan.International Journal of Organizational Innovation (Online),6(3), p.106. Huang, R. and Sarigll, E., 2014. How brand awareness relates to market outcome, brand equity, and the marketing mix. InFashion Branding and Consumer Behaviors(pp. 113-132). Springer New York. Ibrahim, A.B., 2015. Strategy types and small firms' performance an empirical investigation.Journal of Small Business Strategy,4(1), pp.13-22. Jin, X. and Weber, K., 2013. Developing and testing a model of exhibition brand preference: The exhibitors' perspective.Tourism Management,38, pp.94-104. Keller, K. 2017. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Aug. 2017]. Malhotra, S., 2014. A Study on Marketing Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG).International journal of innovative research and development,3(1). Rubach, M.J. and McGee, J.E., 2015. The competitive behaviors of small retailers: Examining the strategies of local merchants in rural America.Journal of Small Business Strategy,12(2), pp.65-81. Sengupta, A.S., Balaji, M.S. and Krishnan, B.C., 2015. How customers cope with service failure? A study of brand reputation and customer satisfaction.Journal of Business Research,68(3), pp.665-674. Urde, M., Baumgarth, C. and Merrilees, B., 2013. Brand orientation and market orientationFrom alternatives to synergy.Journal of Business Research,66(1), pp.13-20. 2017. Our Brands | PG. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Aug. 2017].

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

N October 1986, the British press reported that Me Essays

n October 1986, the British press reported that Mercury had his blood tested for HIV/AIDS at a Harley Street clinic. A reporter for The Sun , Hugh Whittow , questioned Mercury about the story at Heathrow Airport as he was returning from a trip to Japan. Mercury denied he had a sexually transmitted disease . [88] According to his partner Jim Hutton, Mercury was diagnosed with AIDS in late April 1987. [100] Around that time, Mercury claimed in an interview to have tested negative for HIV. [34] Despite the denials, the British press pursued the rampant rumours over the next few years, fuelled by Mercury's increasingly gaunt appearance, Queen's absence from touring and reports from former lovers to various tabloid journals - by 1990 the rumours about Mercury's health were rife. [101] At the 1990 Brit Awards held at the Dominion Theatre , London, on 18 February, a visibly frail Mercury made his final appearance on stage when he joined the re st of Queen to collect the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music. [102] [103] Towards the end of his life, he was routinely stalked by photographers, while The Sun featured a series of articles claiming that he was ill; notably in an article from November 1990 that featured an image of a haggard-looking Mercury on the front page accompanied by the headline, "It's official - Freddie is seriously ill." [104] However, Mercury and his inner circle of colleagues and friends, whom he felt he could trust, continually denied the stories, even after one front-page article published on 29 April 1991, showed Mercury appearing very haggard in what was by then a rare public appearance. [105] It has been suggested that he could have made a contribution to AIDS awareness by speaking earlier about his situation and his fight against the disease. [106] [107] Mercury kept his condition private to protect those closest to him, with Brian May confirming in a 1993 interview he had informed the band of his illness much earlier. [108] [109] Filmed in May 1991, the music video for " These Are the Days of Our Lives " features a very thin Mercury, in what are his final scenes in front of the camera. [110] The rest of the band were ready to record when Mercury felt able to come into the studio, for an hour or two at a time. May says of Mercury: "He just kept saying. 'Write me mor e. Write me stuff. I want to just sing this and do it and when I am gone you can finish it off.' He had no fear, really." [99] Justin Shirley-Smith, the assistant engineer for those last sessions, states: "This is hard to explain to people, but it wasn't sad, it was very happy. He [Freddie] was one of the funniest people I ever encountered. I was laughing most of the time, with him. Freddie was saying [of his illness] 'I'm not going to think about it, I'm going to do this.' [99] After the conclusion of his work with Queen in June 1991, Mercury retired to his home in Kensington , west London. His former partner, Mary Austin, had been a particular comfort in his final years, and in the last few weeks of his life made regular visits to his home to look after him. [111] Near the end of his life Mercury was starting to lose his sight, and he deteriorated to the point where he could not get out of bed. [111] Due to his worsening condition, Mercury decided to hasten his death by refusing to take his medication and continued taking only painkillers. [111]

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Rumors Summary Essays - Rumors, Charley, Eighth Doctor

Rumors : Summary Neil Simon's farce, Rumors, gives readers an in-depth look at the lives of ten wealthy individuals attending a dinner party. In an attempt to stay within the social crown, the characters start unsubstantiated rumors about their friends in an attempt to make themselves look better. The hosts of the party, Ken Gorman, and his wife Chris must cover up the fact that a friend of theirs, Charley Brock, has been shot in the ear lobe. They do not know how he got shot, but they decide that he must have tried to commit suicide, and thereby proceed to spread rumors about what they have heard in an attempt to avoid a possible attempted suicide scandal. They first lie to Charley's personal doctor, they lie about what happened to all of the servants, and they finally about a second gunshot heard in the house. When the Gormans first encounter Charley in his bedroom, they immediately call his personal doctor at the theater to tell him that Charley feels just fine. Chris relates the story to the doctor when she says, "Dr. Dudley, I'm afraid there's been an accident_ Well, we just arrived here at Charley's house about ten minutes ago, and as we were getting out of our car, we suddenly heard this enormous_ thud_ It seemed Charley had tripped going up the stairs_ no, wait, down the stairs. Down the stairs. But he's all right," (13). Finally, Chris manages to explain to the doctor that Charley had not really hurt himself in the first place and that she felt sorry to have bothered him at the theater. After hanging up the phone, the Gormans put Charley in the shower to wash off the blood, wrap a towel around his head to stop the bleeding, and go back downstairs to wait for the rest of the party guests. Lenny and Claire Ganz arrive at the party first. Coming straight from a car accident, the Ganz's ask why Charley has not joined them for the party. Ken Gorman explains that Charley has had a rough day and he decided to take a nap for a little while. Lenny exclaims that he has not had a thing to eat since breakfast and wonders where Mai Li the cook has put all of the food. Not wanting to explain that they have recently fired Mai Li, the Gormans fabricate a story about her having to go back to Japan to visit her sick mother. Claire asks, "But Mai Li is Chinese, isn't she?" The Gormans look at each other and then Chris quickly says, "I know. Her mother was visiting Japan." As a result of this, they must ask their friends to help them prepare dinner for their own party. They know that if they explain to the Ganz's that they do not have enough money to keep her in service any longer, they will fall of out favor with their friends. For this reason, they find it necessary to fabricate stories to explain happenings in the house. As the night progresses, they consistently dig themselves into a deeper hole of lies. The situation eventually gets terrible when Ken tries to hide the gun so Charley can't find it to shoot himself again. On his way to putting in the closet, Ken trips over Charley's slippers and discharges the gun straight into the wall. The report occurred right next to his ear, and for the rest of the play, Ken is almost entirely deaf. Naturally, the Gormans cannot say that a gunshot went off in the house, so they create a variety of different excuses to explain the sound upstairs. At first, Claire decides that a car backfiring has the most credibility, but because of the volume of the sound, she later changes it to a manhole cover that exploded. After some time, she again changes the story to a can of shaving cream that exploded due to the pressure from the manhole cover exploding. This story seems a little far-fetched to the other guests, so she finally says, "Oh, I know. I know. I know exactly what it was_ it was a balloon. They've been blowing up party balloons up there all day," (43). This answer seems satisfactory enough for everyone, and they lapse back into their normal conversations again. The party in Rumors has a lot of humor to it, but on the other hand, it shows just how far people will go just to be accepted by their peers. Through deceit, the Gormans lied about Charley's health to avoid an investigation. They lied about their lack